Did everything of a tree – both furniture, and a basket, both a mortar, and sledge, and a cradle for the child. Often these household subjects from a tree painted. The master thought not only about that these things were convenient, well served the appointment, but cared of their beauty, of that they pleased people, turning work, even the heaviest, into a holiday.
The harvest was celebrated by special holidays: zazhinka – at the beginning of a harvest and dozhinka – at the end of harvesting. In the center of festivals there were sheaves: the first – about time a zazhinok, the last – in time a dozhinok. These sheaves were solemnly brought to the village. Baked the first bread of a new crop from a zazhinochny sheaf, put a dozhinochny sheaf in a log hut, in a forward corner. Grain from it when sowing was poured to the first furrow or mixed with seed grain. Before beginning a harvest, made a sacrifice to field spirit, special spells expelled from sheaves of the evil ghosts who are allegedly sitting there. Approximately same ceremonies were carried out and upon termination of a harvest,
"The world popularity was gained by art of a Khokhloma list. Golden color wooden products of this trade with a vegetable ornament, florid and festive, are called simply "Khokhloma". Khokhloma is a name of the ancient trade village of the former Nizhny Novgorod province where brought wooden painted ware for sale.
Many other cleaning ceremonies were connected with a meeting of spring and a farewell to winter. They were based on belief that for dark, cold winter the set of different evil spirits which should be neutralized and expelled from the dwelling and from fields gathered.
Kovshichki for drink had a boatshaped form. Handles of ladles became in the form of the head of a horse or a duck. Ladles were generously decorated with a carving or a list. Round the big ladle towering in the center of a table they were similar to ducklings round a brood hen. The ladles having a form of a duck and were called ladles-utitsy. Bratina – fine-molded vessels for drinks in the form of a sphere – too undersigned, given to them and an inscription, for example such contents: "Misters, stay, drunk do not get drunk, do not wait for evening!" Cut out from a tree also beautiful saltcellars in the form of horses and birds, and bowls, and, of course, spoons. Wooden spoons and did not become today museum pieces. We willingly buy them for ourselves, we give to friends. Wooden spoons are unusually convenient: and a shank on a hand, also you will not burn.
To replace the decaying primitive-communal system the new relations of feudal society were formed. Near villages, there were strengthened dwellings of rich land owners which used work of the poor grain-growers who got to them to economic dependence.
In the modern village, of course, became less than carved and painted products from a tree. But, maybe, now they more than ever please us. At fairs, exhibitions, in the museums of folk art they create the atmosphere of conviviality, beauty, are surprising and admiration of people." (L.
At first from a linden turn on the lathe of a form of products. They are dried, and then cover with a liquid layer of local fat clay (vapa). Products become similar on clay. It is done in order that the tree did not absorb oil. Then products are oiled linseed and dried, then three-four times cover with drying oil. Last time dry not up to the end and so that stuck powder of aluminum which replaced rather expensive silver and tin (was pasted). From aluminum of a product become brilliant, similar on metal. They are ready for a list.
In HVP an eyelid this trade began to call by the name of the trade village Khokhloma, from where over all country the elegant golden ware dispersed. Here and now carefully traditions of a list of ware from a tree are stored and develop. Throughout centuries Khokhloma products were cheap wooden ware, but they decorated severe country life, brought in it conviviality, elegance. National artists from the Volga villages since the childhood observe the nature, admire awakening of spring, gold of fall, a whiteness of a winter forest, absorb in themselves smells of the earth and herbs, fruits and berries.